|Production: Riverside Theatre Festival||:|
|Lighting Designers: George Meredith; Naomi Gibson|
|ETC Congo Jr||1|
|Strand Prelude PC||4kg||650w||1||0|
|Acclaim Fresnel||4kg||300w – 650w||14||0|
|Acclaim Profile||5.5kg||300w – 650w||7||0||3 shutters missing|
|5 without ‘c’ clamps|
|5 without safety bonds|
|Source 4 parnel||4.5kg||750w||6||0|
|Strand Prelude||7.5kg||240v||2||2||16 <> 30|
|Iris Flood||6kg||1,250w||3||1||Missing grill|
|3 pin DMX XLR||14||13||1|
|5 pin DMX XLR||6||4||2|
|13 amp extension||8||6||2|
|15 amp extension||11||9||2|
|15 amp multicore||1||1||0|
|13 – 15 amp ex||10||9||1|
|15 – 13 amp ex||8||8||0|
|Selecon Acclaim Guard||26|
|Selecon Acclaim Filter Holder||43|
|Prelude Colour Frame||13|
|Compact Colour Frame||3|
|Flood Colour Frame||6|
|Parcan Filter Holder||34|
|Small Barn Doors||18|
|Medium Barn Doors||17|
|Large Barn Doors||8|
|Various Colour Frames||17|
|Robert Juliet Barn Doors||1|
|Lee Filters: Files||Lee Filters: Folders||Rosco Filters|
|Filter Number||Filter Name||Filter Number||Filter Name||Filter Number||Filter Name|
|790||Moroccan Pink||779||Special K.H. Lavender||#12||Straw|
|789||Blood Red||797||Deep Purple|
|773||Cardbox Amber||793||Vanity Fair||Other|
|764||Sun Colour Straw||780||As Golden Amber||3x White Diffusers|
|736||Twickenham Green||728||Steel Green|
|723||Virgin Blue||727||QFD Blue|
|715||Cabana Blue||721||Berry Blue|
|708||Cool Lavender||713||J. Winter Blue|
|501||New Colour Blue (Robertson Blue)||711||Cold Blue|
|443||Quarter C.T. Straw||707||Ultimate Violet|
|442||Half C.T. Straw||700||Perfect Lavender|
|441||Full C.T. Straw||198||Palace Blue|
|352||Glacier Blue||174||Dark Steel Blue|
|327||Forest Green||170||Deep Lavender|
|281||Three-Quarter C.T. Blue||162||Bastard Amber|
|211||.9 Neutral Density||161||Slate Blue|
|203||Quarter C.T. Blue||152||Pale Gold|
|202||Half C.T. Blue||148||Bright Rose|
|201||Full C.T. Blue||140||Summer Blue|
|200||Double C.T. Blue||137||Special Lavender|
|194||Surprise Pink||136||Pale Lavender|
|182||Light Red||124||Dark Green|
|181||Congo Blue||116||Medium Blue-Green|
|169||Lilac Tint||110||Middle Rose|
|154||Pale Rose||107||Light Rose|
|139||Primary Green||52||Light Lavender|
|132||Medium Blue||25||Sunset Red|
|122||Fern Green||9||Pale Amber Gold|
|90||Dark Yellow Green|
|4||Medium Bastard Amber|
The first meeting I had with one of the directors was to initially discuss what she was thinking for her participation to the Riverside Theatre Festival. This meeting lasted approximately 10 minutes. I was given the starting point for what she felt the scenes should be about and discussed the themes so I wouldn’t be in the dark at the first rehearsal I attended. I was given the style of theatre would be absurd, so I went home that night and researched what absurd theatre is, and looked at different videos and articles to find out what police brutality was fully about.. This concluded the meeting.
The second meeting started approximately at the 5th rehearsal. This is because I wanted to give the performers space to create their characters and have a starting point for the production. There were a number of scenes to see, which I managed to get some ideas for from watching the videos. During the rehearsal, it was being mentioned what the director would like from the performance, yet she was giving me room to negotiate and compromise. At the end of rehearsal, we managed to come together and talk about our ideas in full. It was said that the director wasn’t too keen on having any blackouts, as she said she wanted the audience to see everything that was going off on stage. We spoke of the first four scenes. I was aware that nothing was set in stone as this was my first time seeing what she had for me and we had only one discussion before. Scene one was to be a spot on five performers then isolate one performer. The other members of the cast would have created a wall at the back of the stage, then bring up a general coverage of the stage. Scene two was to be a toilet scene which also consisted of general coverage of the stage, then onto scene four straight away, the staging would turn red with leds to resemble an occult. Then for the final scene of the day, there would be a repeat of the first scene.
At the third meeting, a number of the scenes had changed as you can tell from the image of my notebook above. She still wanted the toilet scene but in a different place. Another thing which changed is that the cast had gone from five to three. This was no issue as I was able to talk to my co-lighting designer and came up with a solution. As he was using a number of spots in the same place, I was still able to have five spots. This was just a precaution in case the other members of the cast came back.
Scene one: There would be two performers on the stage playing chess. The idea was to have a centre spot on the them both and the table with the chess board. There was to be a blackout at the end of this scene, as the director thought it would be a good idea in some areas to separate the scenes. I did push for this idea as I thought it would add more suspense as to what was coming next.
Scene two would be a freeze frame, similar to what we discussed in the first meeting. The director wanted a quick snap at the beginning as though it creating a photograph for the audience. Luckily enough, I was sitting in on a first year lighting session the week before, and this was spoken about. The part of the session I am referring to was framing the scene. I mentioned that I could create a silhouette with backlighting, when the three spots would be directly on top of the performers. At first I thought it would work with the fade time being on 0.5 seconds but thought that would be too quick for anything to register with the audience. Instead I thought of two seconds, also for the performers to have time to get into position.
Scene three was to have the toilet scene. I spoke with my co-lighting designer and tutor to find out if there was a gobo which I could use to resemble prison. Luckily there was one in the Mac500 which was already placed in the rig on the lighting plan. I put this forward to the director and she loved it rather than just having general coverage. It was spoken how she wanted to split stage it and put two parts of the scene on different size of the stage. Stage right was to be the prison and stage left to be the toilet. For stage left I said for the prison bars, but for visibility to also have some general coverage. I gave my reasons which were taken into consideration and accepted. For stage right, as it is a sinister moment, we stayed for the red leds. I also explained that the set would have some luminaires in so could always light them up too. She loved this idea as she felt it was more absurd if I could put different colours in each tower.
Scene four was to be a repeat of scene two. This is to be repeated over a few times within different scenes.
Scene five I mentioned having a light blue led on stage left. This scene is about a good police officer saying goodbye to his girlfriend/wife as he is going to work. I also suggested instead of having general coverage to have two follow spots on the performers as I feel a general coverage will lose the effect on the colouring.
Scene six is a riot scene which I thought would be good to have red to represent the chaos. Also to have the two robes which were on the floor to strobe blue for the contrast.
For this section, I am going to concentrate on the different positions in which you can light a performance. This will enable me to choose from a range of positions to help with my lighting design for Acting and Musical Theatre.
Lighting from the front:
A vertical beam will be more efficient for lighting from the front, as the lit area of the stage and the shadows, should be no wider than the actor. One con of this is that the actors eyes will then be seen as black holes and the nose (which will be highlighted from the lantern) will then shade the mouth, making the facial features less noticeable.
When the lantern is moved slightly forward, it will start to reach the actors mouth and eyes (if the chin is being held upright in the right posture.) However, with the lantern being brought forward, shadows will be present. The shadow cast from the actor will go more upstage.
As the lighting comes more to the front, the actors facial features become more visible as they receive more light. Again, this increases the shadow which expands further and further upstage with the likelihood of the shadow hitting the scenery.
As the lighting is right at the front of the stage, the actors features becomes too bright as well as the scenery. The shadows increase dramatically. When the lighting is like this, the beam shape goes horizontal, known as a corridor, which shows the entire depth of the stage, and the actors shadow becomes the same as the actors length.
Lighting from below projects the actors shadow, so it goes bigger when the actor is closer to the lantern. But when the actor moves further away, the shadow will decrease. When there is only this lighting angle, the light on the face reflects will soften the harsh features.
There were many patents dating back from 1806, from Edmund Sohlberg, who created a lantern using a carbon-arc lamp operated manually by cord, which controlled pan, tilt and zoom.
1925 was the year that motors were used to move a fixture, as well as the beam position. This was invented by Herbert F.King. In 1936, an unnamed person was given permission to create a similar device to the one previously mentioned, but with pan and tilt, which was controlled by a joystick. From this point to approximately 1969, similar lighting fixtures had been made and the technology been improved. In this period, Century Lighting, now known as ‘Strand,’ started selling and ordering parts for lanterns, that would fit into any of their existing lanterns up to 750 watts, to control pan and/or tilt.
The next breakthrough was in 1969 by George Izenour. He was the first person to use a mirror on the end of an ellipsoidal, (having the nature or shape of an ellipsoid,) to redirect the beam of light.
In Bristol in 1968, progress was also being made, mainly for use on live music. Peter Whynne Wilson referred to the use of 1kW Profiles, on slides which gobos were printed, which was to be inserted from a reel, just like a slide projector. These fixtures also had an Iris, and a multiple coloured gel wheel. These lights were also fitted with mirrors, which were used for a Pink Floyd show in London. Another fixture known as the ‘Cycklops’ was also used for music in the USA, although it had limited capability, as with only pan, tilt, colour functions, and at 1.2 meter long and weighing 97 kg, they were heavy and cumbersome. These fixtures were designed for replacing spotlight operators if they were unreliable.
In 1986, Vari-Lite introduced a new series of lighting fixtures and control consoles. This system was referred to as Series 200. The Series 200 system was controlled by the Artisan console.
1985, and the first moving head to be controlled by DMX was produced by Summa Technologies. Up until this time, moving heads were controlled by other communication controls, such as DIN8, AMX, D54.
In the 1990’s, Martin, a Danish company started producing fog machines. They made a line of scanners known as Roboscans. Martin also invented a range of moving heads such as, Mac250, the Mac250+, Mac300, Mac500,Mac 550, Mac600, Mac700, Mac1200 and more recently the Mac 2000. Martin Macs are most popular in most rental situations. (Intelligent lighting 1980-2000, no date)
For this section, I have researched the different types of lanterns. I believe that this will help me understand the lanterns themselves, and will help me know what to use within my design. Although there is a lot of brands for these different lanterns, I am going to just talk about their features as a whole.
(Profile lighting, no date)
A Profile, also known as an ERS, is one of the most convenient types of lanterns. It offers copious visual variants and is aesthetically versatile. There are two different types of profiles. Ellipsoidal and Condenser Optics. The first one I am going to talk about is an ellipsoidal reflector, which makes it easier to focus the lantern. The lights circle breadth is adjusted by an iris diaphragm which is placed at the front focal point. Near the iris, there is a gobo slot, as well as four shutters. These shutters are used to restrict the light beam vertically and horizontally. There are three different planes within a profile which will modify the beam and are placed closely behind each other. The shutters are placed either on four or two different planes. The gobo slot, which I previously mentioned, is placed on an additional plane. This is so the beam can be transformed to produce any desired shape. This style of lantern has become more effective over the years with the use of zoom optics. This is like a zoom lens you would find on a digital camera. It will produce a much better quality, however this can be disputed through the workings of the individual operating/designing of the lighting. (Meet Google drive – One place for all your files, no date) (Shelley, 2011)
In comparison to the ellipsoidal, a condenser optics light discharged by the lamp and the spherical reflector is focused by the lens of the lantern. The same as the ellipsoidal, the beam is changed by hand by the use of an iris diaphragm, shutters and/or a gobo. Transposable lenses may also alter the focal length on this lantern. These styles of profiles are improved and are more convenient for altering the focal length. With condenser optics lanterns, the lenses are no longer changed, but in addition, an adjustable lens is fitted that will allow the lantern to cover a greater range of beam angles. An example of the beam angles are:
- 12 – 22
- 16 – 30
- 28 – 40
(A Philips group brand arena PC & Fresnel | strand lighting – A Philips group brand, no date)
The way the Fresnel was built is similar to that of a traditional profile, however the lens is replaced by a Fresnel lens, which consists of ridges to make the edge of the beam diffused. The basis of this lens is so that large diameters can be used. The way in which you change the size of the beam works the same way as a Profile. The light is diffused leaving colour errors less noticeable around the edges. This is because the beam that is being produced is soft edged from the ridges of the lens. Fresnels are generally used as a general coverage of the stage, as you can use barn doors to section off the stage evenly. This style of lantern can take incandescent and discharge lamps.
(111, no date)
A Parcan is a lantern that has been further developed from the parabolic reflector. The way in which the lantern makes light is used by an incandescent coil, (which is an arc in the case of the discharge lamp), a reflector; holder and front lens is placed within in confined unit and is mounted within the housing.
The beam that is produced is oval, and they are essentially sharply defined. The focal length cannot be altered, however, it can be determined from the lamp chosen. This style of lantern can be purchased in four different beam angles consisting of:
- Narrow Beam (9×12)
- Medium Beam (10×15)
- Wide Beam (11×24)
These different beam angles are created by the uppermost layer of the lens.
(The strand archive – Iris Flood, no date)
A Flood is personally the simplest form of lighting, which consists of a lamp; reflector in a box with no lens. The reflectors job in this case is to concentrate the beam out of the box. There is no controlling the focus of this lantern other than guiding the beam in the direction you would like it. Some Floods nowadays have an asymmetric or diagonal reflector which are designed to light cyclaramas. These types of Floods have a linear lamp, which will help light the entire stage. (Types of lantern, no date)
P.C (Pebble Convex)
(Pebble convex, no date)
This style of lantern has many different similarities to the Profile and Fresnel. The lens that this lantern uses is a modified plano-convex lens with pebbled effects on the plano side. This pebbled effect gives the beam its characteristic soft edge. This beam is moderately harder than a Fresnel is, but it is not hard edged.
Profile lighting (no date) Available at: https://www.google.co.uk/search?q=profile+lighting&es_sm=93&biw=1280&bih=667&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&sqi=2&ved=0CAcQ_AUoAmoVChMImf_ixcX8yAIVCKAOCh3XIAOw#imgrc=-TxbVBtGbd_V8M%3A (Accessed: 6 November 2015).
Profile theatre lighting hire oxford (no date) Available at: http://www.acdisco.com/profile-light-hire.html (Accessed: 6 November 2015).
Acclaim|Acclaim axial 18°-34° Zoomspot (no date) Available at: http://www.seleconlight.com//index.php?option=com_virtuemart&page=shop.product_details&flypage=flypage.p1&category_id=121&product_id=74 (Accessed: 6 November 2015).
Keller, M. and Szabó, D. (2006) Light fantastic: The art and design of stage lighting, with DVD. 2nd edition. New York: Prestel Publishing.
111 (no date) How to make a cheap home made par can. Available at: http://www.instructables.com/id/How-to-make-a-cheap-home-made-par-can/ (Accessed: 8 November 2015).
Types of lantern (no date) Available at: http://www.theatrecrafts.com/page.php?id=803 (Accessed: 8 November 2015).
Pebble convex (no date) Available at: http://www.pslx.co.uk/prod03.htm (Accessed: 8 November 2015).
For this part of my lighting design, I’m going to be looking at police brutality, see any performances with it in and state what I have taken from them to inspire me with my design.
Here we have South African State Theatre doing a piece on police brutality. I feel this image suits the riot scene, and has the same colour scheme as what me and the director discussed. As you can see, there is minimal general coverage. I like this idea as it shows the sinister side of the people who we feel keep us safe. It looks cruel and distressing, as you can barely see their features which I feel is a huge enhancement to the atmosphere of the piece.
Here we have the same production but at a different stage and angle. For me, the fogger creates the atmosphere as it can resemble smoke grenades. Although there is no strobe within this picture, the use of the open white luminaire gives me a sense of what the strobes would look like alongside the red leds.
With this, I was looking at the different types of gobo’s there is for prison bars and the positioning to find where they could best be of use. I feel that this one is possibly too big for the performance which was going to take place, however, it would be possible to make it smaller if I was going to use one this size.
Personally, I feel that this gobo looks medieval and this is not the era we are going for. The bars are too small and looks as though only one half is in focus, although this could be due to the designer or it could have just gone out of focus.
I originally had the idea of texturing a piece of the set with the gobo, but soon found out that was impossible, as the performer would probably be in dead space for that location. However, it could have looked effective with half his face showing so people can clearly see that he is a criminal.
Looking at the gobo on the floor looks more effective in my opinion. The performer can stand in the centre and act as though he is pulling on the bars. I think that the texture on the floor and colouring creates a sense of harmony as they all fit in well with each other. I shall take parts of this idea and endeavor to confidently create my own piece around the image provided.
Here, I have researched the use of colour against followspots. As you can see they clearly complement each other in a way that doesn’t wash out the other colour. The only issue I have with this piece is that the followspot is too defined. Personally I would have it diffused as it looks too harsh on the performers and the shadows it is giving.
(Blue led with followspot on stage, no date)
Here is another followspot against colour. I generally do not like this at I feel that they clash with each other. Again the spot is too harsh although I like the fact that shadows produced
(Alibaba manufacturer directory – suppliers, manufacturers, exporters & importers, no date)
are not too vivid. The colour on the other hand hurts my eyes, and in a performance you would like the audience to enjoy the production rather than straining their eyes.
For my Lighting Design I have taken on the role of designer for Acting and Musical Theatre. For my first part of research, I’m going to look and show my research for lighting for acting and musical theatre which will consist of the correct procedure in which to light the stage and also the general principle of lighting these pieces.
The first activity that needs to be lit is always the visibility. One of the most important aspects of theatre lighting is to make the performance visible to the audience. This needs to be done in a way that will complement the performance/action. A designer will consider the intensity; lighting source; direction and colour of a performance to make the above possible. It is a major consideration for lighting a typical performance. If the designer fails to do this correctly, there will be issues in which the audience may endure such as fatigue, eye-strain, restlessness and lack of communication. These are factors that need to be taken into consideration, in whether the audience will become engrossed in the performance or not.
The next part of a lighting design is selective focus. This draws the audience’s eyes away from specific areas. This could be because of scene changes or performers coming onto the stage. The way in which this is done, is that a person’s instinct is to focus on the brightest point or when there is movement. This could be done with:
- Increasing the Intensity
- Adding colour or texture to the area
- Having a followspot on a performer (mainly used in musical theatre or dance)
- Optical Motion
The next stage is modelling of a performer of a piece of scenery. The intensity, movement and colour play a role in modelling but the most vital component is the positioning of the lighting source. This means that great thought has to go in the positioning of these lanterns.
The next aspect is the mood. This can have a major impact on the performance. This is done due to the angle of the lanterns, intensity and colour. The designer must try and portray the mood, but not obstruct any other elements.