|Production: Riverside Theatre Festival||:|
|Lighting Designers: George Meredith; Naomi Gibson|
|ETC Congo Jr||1|
|Strand Prelude PC||4kg||650w||1||0|
|Acclaim Fresnel||4kg||300w – 650w||14||0|
|Acclaim Profile||5.5kg||300w – 650w||7||0||3 shutters missing|
|5 without ‘c’ clamps|
|5 without safety bonds|
|Source 4 parnel||4.5kg||750w||6||0|
|Strand Prelude||7.5kg||240v||2||2||16 <> 30|
|Iris Flood||6kg||1,250w||3||1||Missing grill|
|3 pin DMX XLR||14||13||1|
|5 pin DMX XLR||6||4||2|
|13 amp extension||8||6||2|
|15 amp extension||11||9||2|
|15 amp multicore||1||1||0|
|13 – 15 amp ex||10||9||1|
|15 – 13 amp ex||8||8||0|
|Selecon Acclaim Guard||26|
|Selecon Acclaim Filter Holder||43|
|Prelude Colour Frame||13|
|Compact Colour Frame||3|
|Flood Colour Frame||6|
|Parcan Filter Holder||34|
|Small Barn Doors||18|
|Medium Barn Doors||17|
|Large Barn Doors||8|
|Various Colour Frames||17|
|Robert Juliet Barn Doors||1|
|Lee Filters: Files||Lee Filters: Folders||Rosco Filters|
|Filter Number||Filter Name||Filter Number||Filter Name||Filter Number||Filter Name|
|790||Moroccan Pink||779||Special K.H. Lavender||#12||Straw|
|789||Blood Red||797||Deep Purple|
|773||Cardbox Amber||793||Vanity Fair||Other|
|764||Sun Colour Straw||780||As Golden Amber||3x White Diffusers|
|736||Twickenham Green||728||Steel Green|
|723||Virgin Blue||727||QFD Blue|
|715||Cabana Blue||721||Berry Blue|
|708||Cool Lavender||713||J. Winter Blue|
|501||New Colour Blue (Robertson Blue)||711||Cold Blue|
|443||Quarter C.T. Straw||707||Ultimate Violet|
|442||Half C.T. Straw||700||Perfect Lavender|
|441||Full C.T. Straw||198||Palace Blue|
|352||Glacier Blue||174||Dark Steel Blue|
|327||Forest Green||170||Deep Lavender|
|281||Three-Quarter C.T. Blue||162||Bastard Amber|
|211||.9 Neutral Density||161||Slate Blue|
|203||Quarter C.T. Blue||152||Pale Gold|
|202||Half C.T. Blue||148||Bright Rose|
|201||Full C.T. Blue||140||Summer Blue|
|200||Double C.T. Blue||137||Special Lavender|
|194||Surprise Pink||136||Pale Lavender|
|182||Light Red||124||Dark Green|
|181||Congo Blue||116||Medium Blue-Green|
|169||Lilac Tint||110||Middle Rose|
|154||Pale Rose||107||Light Rose|
|139||Primary Green||52||Light Lavender|
|132||Medium Blue||25||Sunset Red|
|122||Fern Green||9||Pale Amber Gold|
|90||Dark Yellow Green|
|4||Medium Bastard Amber|
For this section, I am going to concentrate on the different positions in which you can light a performance. This will enable me to choose from a range of positions to help with my lighting design for Acting and Musical Theatre.
Lighting from the front:
A vertical beam will be more efficient for lighting from the front, as the lit area of the stage and the shadows, should be no wider than the actor. One con of this is that the actors eyes will then be seen as black holes and the nose (which will be highlighted from the lantern) will then shade the mouth, making the facial features less noticeable.
When the lantern is moved slightly forward, it will start to reach the actors mouth and eyes (if the chin is being held upright in the right posture.) However, with the lantern being brought forward, shadows will be present. The shadow cast from the actor will go more upstage.
As the lighting comes more to the front, the actors facial features become more visible as they receive more light. Again, this increases the shadow which expands further and further upstage with the likelihood of the shadow hitting the scenery.
As the lighting is right at the front of the stage, the actors features becomes too bright as well as the scenery. The shadows increase dramatically. When the lighting is like this, the beam shape goes horizontal, known as a corridor, which shows the entire depth of the stage, and the actors shadow becomes the same as the actors length.
Lighting from below projects the actors shadow, so it goes bigger when the actor is closer to the lantern. But when the actor moves further away, the shadow will decrease. When there is only this lighting angle, the light on the face reflects will soften the harsh features.
For this section, I have researched the different types of lanterns. I believe that this will help me understand the lanterns themselves, and will help me know what to use within my design. Although there is a lot of brands for these different lanterns, I am going to just talk about their features as a whole.
(Profile lighting, no date)
A Profile, also known as an ERS, is one of the most convenient types of lanterns. It offers copious visual variants and is aesthetically versatile. There are two different types of profiles. Ellipsoidal and Condenser Optics. The first one I am going to talk about is an ellipsoidal reflector, which makes it easier to focus the lantern. The lights circle breadth is adjusted by an iris diaphragm which is placed at the front focal point. Near the iris, there is a gobo slot, as well as four shutters. These shutters are used to restrict the light beam vertically and horizontally. There are three different planes within a profile which will modify the beam and are placed closely behind each other. The shutters are placed either on four or two different planes. The gobo slot, which I previously mentioned, is placed on an additional plane. This is so the beam can be transformed to produce any desired shape. This style of lantern has become more effective over the years with the use of zoom optics. This is like a zoom lens you would find on a digital camera. It will produce a much better quality, however this can be disputed through the workings of the individual operating/designing of the lighting. (Meet Google drive – One place for all your files, no date) (Shelley, 2011)
In comparison to the ellipsoidal, a condenser optics light discharged by the lamp and the spherical reflector is focused by the lens of the lantern. The same as the ellipsoidal, the beam is changed by hand by the use of an iris diaphragm, shutters and/or a gobo. Transposable lenses may also alter the focal length on this lantern. These styles of profiles are improved and are more convenient for altering the focal length. With condenser optics lanterns, the lenses are no longer changed, but in addition, an adjustable lens is fitted that will allow the lantern to cover a greater range of beam angles. An example of the beam angles are:
- 12 – 22
- 16 – 30
- 28 – 40
(A Philips group brand arena PC & Fresnel | strand lighting – A Philips group brand, no date)
The way the Fresnel was built is similar to that of a traditional profile, however the lens is replaced by a Fresnel lens, which consists of ridges to make the edge of the beam diffused. The basis of this lens is so that large diameters can be used. The way in which you change the size of the beam works the same way as a Profile. The light is diffused leaving colour errors less noticeable around the edges. This is because the beam that is being produced is soft edged from the ridges of the lens. Fresnels are generally used as a general coverage of the stage, as you can use barn doors to section off the stage evenly. This style of lantern can take incandescent and discharge lamps.
(111, no date)
A Parcan is a lantern that has been further developed from the parabolic reflector. The way in which the lantern makes light is used by an incandescent coil, (which is an arc in the case of the discharge lamp), a reflector; holder and front lens is placed within in confined unit and is mounted within the housing.
The beam that is produced is oval, and they are essentially sharply defined. The focal length cannot be altered, however, it can be determined from the lamp chosen. This style of lantern can be purchased in four different beam angles consisting of:
- Narrow Beam (9×12)
- Medium Beam (10×15)
- Wide Beam (11×24)
These different beam angles are created by the uppermost layer of the lens.
(The strand archive – Iris Flood, no date)
A Flood is personally the simplest form of lighting, which consists of a lamp; reflector in a box with no lens. The reflectors job in this case is to concentrate the beam out of the box. There is no controlling the focus of this lantern other than guiding the beam in the direction you would like it. Some Floods nowadays have an asymmetric or diagonal reflector which are designed to light cyclaramas. These types of Floods have a linear lamp, which will help light the entire stage. (Types of lantern, no date)
P.C (Pebble Convex)
(Pebble convex, no date)
This style of lantern has many different similarities to the Profile and Fresnel. The lens that this lantern uses is a modified plano-convex lens with pebbled effects on the plano side. This pebbled effect gives the beam its characteristic soft edge. This beam is moderately harder than a Fresnel is, but it is not hard edged.
Profile lighting (no date) Available at: https://www.google.co.uk/search?q=profile+lighting&es_sm=93&biw=1280&bih=667&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&sqi=2&ved=0CAcQ_AUoAmoVChMImf_ixcX8yAIVCKAOCh3XIAOw#imgrc=-TxbVBtGbd_V8M%3A (Accessed: 6 November 2015).
Profile theatre lighting hire oxford (no date) Available at: http://www.acdisco.com/profile-light-hire.html (Accessed: 6 November 2015).
Acclaim|Acclaim axial 18°-34° Zoomspot (no date) Available at: http://www.seleconlight.com//index.php?option=com_virtuemart&page=shop.product_details&flypage=flypage.p1&category_id=121&product_id=74 (Accessed: 6 November 2015).
Keller, M. and Szabó, D. (2006) Light fantastic: The art and design of stage lighting, with DVD. 2nd edition. New York: Prestel Publishing.
111 (no date) How to make a cheap home made par can. Available at: http://www.instructables.com/id/How-to-make-a-cheap-home-made-par-can/ (Accessed: 8 November 2015).
Types of lantern (no date) Available at: http://www.theatrecrafts.com/page.php?id=803 (Accessed: 8 November 2015).
Pebble convex (no date) Available at: http://www.pslx.co.uk/prod03.htm (Accessed: 8 November 2015).
For this part of my lighting design, I’m going to be looking at police brutality, see any performances with it in and state what I have taken from them to inspire me with my design.
Here we have South African State Theatre doing a piece on police brutality. I feel this image suits the riot scene, and has the same colour scheme as what me and the director discussed. As you can see, there is minimal general coverage. I like this idea as it shows the sinister side of the people who we feel keep us safe. It looks cruel and distressing, as you can barely see their features which I feel is a huge enhancement to the atmosphere of the piece.
Here we have the same production but at a different stage and angle. For me, the fogger creates the atmosphere as it can resemble smoke grenades. Although there is no strobe within this picture, the use of the open white luminaire gives me a sense of what the strobes would look like alongside the red leds.
With this, I was looking at the different types of gobo’s there is for prison bars and the positioning to find where they could best be of use. I feel that this one is possibly too big for the performance which was going to take place, however, it would be possible to make it smaller if I was going to use one this size.
Personally, I feel that this gobo looks medieval and this is not the era we are going for. The bars are too small and looks as though only one half is in focus, although this could be due to the designer or it could have just gone out of focus.
I originally had the idea of texturing a piece of the set with the gobo, but soon found out that was impossible, as the performer would probably be in dead space for that location. However, it could have looked effective with half his face showing so people can clearly see that he is a criminal.
Looking at the gobo on the floor looks more effective in my opinion. The performer can stand in the centre and act as though he is pulling on the bars. I think that the texture on the floor and colouring creates a sense of harmony as they all fit in well with each other. I shall take parts of this idea and endeavor to confidently create my own piece around the image provided.
Here, I have researched the use of colour against followspots. As you can see they clearly complement each other in a way that doesn’t wash out the other colour. The only issue I have with this piece is that the followspot is too defined. Personally I would have it diffused as it looks too harsh on the performers and the shadows it is giving.
(Blue led with followspot on stage, no date)
Here is another followspot against colour. I generally do not like this at I feel that they clash with each other. Again the spot is too harsh although I like the fact that shadows produced
(Alibaba manufacturer directory – suppliers, manufacturers, exporters & importers, no date)
are not too vivid. The colour on the other hand hurts my eyes, and in a performance you would like the audience to enjoy the production rather than straining their eyes.
What is colour?
Colour has the ability to be perceived through the sense of sight. For example, the only reason we know red is red, is because we have been trained throughout the years to know what colour is what. These colour names are referred to as hues which is the general description or the name that is given to that specific colour. It is a psychological process that will precipitate a physical stimulus, more known as a colour stimulus. There are three different types of photo receptor cells in our retinas of the human eye that are delicate to the rays in which different wavebands are passed through. These are cones. Alongside these, there are other receptors known as rods which is responsible for the sensitivity to brightness. (Keller and Szabó, 2006)
There are functions of three factors that we see, that will change the way in which we see colour. Any change of these factors will make us perceive colour in a different way. The three factors which are mentioned in Scene Design and Stage Lighting – page 30 (Pilbrow, 2008) are:
- The colour of light itself
- The colour of the objectives being observed
- The ability of the optical sensor i.e. an eye which will distinguish between colours
The mass amount of range in a electromagnetic radiation that is visible to the human eye is known as the visible spectrum. Some of the colours that are observable by humans are not within the visible spectrum. These types of colours are made by mixing two or more different wavelengths together. Colours that have only one wavelength are known as a pure colour. The purity of the colour is known as saturation, or less commonly named chroma.
The colours on the spectrum are the same as the ones in the rainbow: Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue; Violet. Because of the fact that light travels in waves, it has both a frequency and wavelength. (Frequency being the number of waves being passed through a given point and wavelength is the distance between two analogous points of waves.
Frequency and Wavelengths
(Stage lighting for students, no date)
The visible wavelengths on a electromagnetic spectrum provide the colour and light. Each colour this is made will have its own spectral wavelength. These wavelengths are measured in nanometers. This measures so that 1 nanometer is equivalent to one-billionth of a metre. The visible portion on the spectrum is small section with wavelengths roughly 380 – 750 nanometres. Anything less than 380 nanometres are classed as ultra violets and anything longer than 750 nanometres are classed as infrared.
CIE Chromaticity Chart:
.The colour chart shown next to this piece of text, was created by the International Commission on Illumination to stipulate visually relationships that colours have with each other. It quite clearly shows the colour mixing, categorically how a number of colours are derived from the mixing of the three primary colours.
(Parker et al., 2008)
The saturated colours are located near the perimeter and become less saturated the further in the chart they go, as they are being mixed with different wavelengths. This will carry on until all the colours mix in the middle which will create white. The curved black line (known as the ‘black body locus) will indicate the exact colour emitted by a light source at any given colour temperature.
Colour within light and pigment may be changed through mixing. When different lights of a different colour hit a white surface, the result will conclude in a admixture of all those colours. If the surface itself is coloured, mixing will still take place but the surface of the colour will participate to produce a reflected colour. This is known as colour modification.
The colour triangle:
A very good way to illustrate colour mixing, is through the use of a colour triangle. The primary colours are at the three points of the triangle. The colour within the centre should represent all three colours mixed together making white.
(Jul — ROM hacking: Forest Temple in GoldenEye, no date)
If two of the primary colours are mixed together along the edge of the triangle, it will create a secondary hue. Mixing green and blue together will give you the result of cyan. Red and green will conclude in yellow and red and blue will make magenta. Similar to the primary hues, if the secondary hues are mixed together they will also create white.
Within the triangle, straight across from one of the colours, will be that hues complementary hue. As the triangle indicates, mixing a colour with its complement creates white.
Mixing coloured lighting is a common practise within Theatre. Overlapping the different rays, fills in shadows which create rich and vibrant colours which help enliven a scene.
Primary and secondary colours which are in lighter tints, are generally used for front lighting the performer. However, if using complementary hues, these can create a white hue which is more vibrant than a unfiltered lantern.